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Regional and Urban Rail

Our urban and regional rail networks are key to sustaining city centre economies, whilst rail also provides the wider connectivity that city regions need.

How we work on rail

 

Tobyn Hughes, Managing Director at Transport North East, is our lead Board member on rail, working with Urban Transport Group Director Jonathan Bray, who is the lead staff member on rail.

Our Rail Strategy group within our Professional Network focuses on regional and urban rail issues.

Resources for this topic

View documents, reports and other material.

Report

The Good Life: The role of transport in shaping a new and sustainable era for suburbs

We are a nation of suburbanites. However, the ubiquity of suburban living is often not reflected in transport policy. And there can be no decarbonisation of transport without specific measures to decarbonise transport in the suburbs. This report presents four foundations of suburbs for a new era – one which offers all suburbanites the promise of the ‘Good Life’ whilst addressing the climate crisis.
Read more about The Good Life: The role of transport in shaping a new and sustainable era for suburbs Download file

Report

What next for urban transport?

This report - published to coincide with the 2019 Autumn Party Conferences - identifies four urban transport challenges and four solutions needed to overcome them.

It also details what transport authorities need from Government to bring about these changes. 

Read more about What next for urban transport? Download file

Report

Number crunch 2019: Urban transport trends in changing times

This is the second in our Number crunch report series and provides an updated overview of the key trends over the last ten years, as well as taking a look at what the new and most recent data is telling us.

We are living in rapidly changing times. Big shifts are taking place in urban transport trends.

Read more about Number crunch 2019: Urban transport trends in changing times Download file

Report

Policy futures for urban transport

The latest edition of Policy futures for urban transport emphasises how a new deal on funding and powers is essential to keep the UK's cities moving forward.

The report sets out the 10 key policy changes that are needed to make cities healthier, fairer and more prosperous.

Read more about Policy futures for urban transport Download file

Report

Rail Cities UK: Our vision for their future

Significant rail expansion is the 'only viable option' to help UK cities achieve their ambitions on economic growth and meeting housing demand, whilst also creating attractive urban centres with less road traffic and better air quality.

Read more about Rail Cities UK: Our vision for their future Download file

Report

The Transformational Benefits of Investing in Regional Rail

Regional rail services carry more than three times the numbers of passengers than the much higher profile long distance (Inter-City) services. As the UK’s city regions increasingly develop their service sector economies and concentrate employment in city centres, rail enables large numbers of people to be moved efficiently and effectively into these ever more congested places.

Read more about The Transformational Benefits of Investing in Regional Rail Download file

Report

Policy Futures

Policy futures for urban transport sets out how, with more focused governance in place, the city regions are delivering major investment programmes including on public transport, highways and active travel, and smart ticketing. The report says that - with the right national policy framework - further and faster progress can be made, including:

Read more about Policy Futures Download file

Report

Rail Devolution Works

Our ‘Rail Devolution Works’ report argues that further rail devolution will enable other regions and areas to also radically transform rail services in a way that supports economic growth at the same time as improving the journey experience for passengers.

Read more about Rail Devolution Works Download file

Report

Horizon scan of implications of technological and social change

This report aims to provide decision makers with a guide to the implications for urban transport of transformative social and technological change and how they can best respond. 

The report (which was produced in collaboration with Arup Foresight) identifies four key overarching trends: 

Read more about Horizon scan of implications of technological and social change Download file

Report

Destination Growth: the case for Britain's regional railways

This report sets out the success of regional rail over the past decade and a half despite limited investment when compared to other rail sectors. The report then goes on to develop two hypothetical scenarios to demonstrate how investment in regional rail could deliver even greater benefits, significantly reducing subsidy and growing the benefits delivered to our city region economies. 

Read more about Destination Growth: the case for Britain's regional railways Download file

Report

A heavy load to bear - towards a fairer allocation of rail industry costs for regional rail

This report shows how regional rail is allocated a disproportionate share of the railways' overall costs which distorts the wider debate about its value for money. The report sets out how an alternative fairer, more defensible and rational system would halve regional rail's share of government support.

Read more about A heavy load to bear - towards a fairer allocation of rail industry costs for regional rail Download file

Report

Options for Regional Rail - A review of ways to improve Britain's regional rail services

A report for pteg by Transport for Quality of Life intended to help widen the scope of debate about regional rail by considering whether more thoroughgoing governance changes might offer greater benefits and whether these benefits are worth the potential risks and costs associated with deeper reform.

Read more about Options for Regional Rail - A review of ways to improve Britain's regional rail services Download file

Report

LSTF Monitoring and Evaluation Guidance - Final Report

Building on the work of the Department for Transport, pteg commissioned AECOM to prepare additional guidance for PTEs and other Local Transport Authorities to assist in the monitoring and evaluation of Local Sustainable Transport Fund projects. The guidance provides a practical approach to developing cost effective and affordable monitoring and evaluation programmes.

Read more about LSTF Monitoring and Evaluation Guidance - Final Report Download file

Report

PTEs role on rail stations

The study was commissioned to identify and review alternative structures of responsibility for railway station sponsorship, stewardship, and service delivery, in the context of potential scope for greater devolvement of responsibility for urban rail to the PTEs.

Read more about PTEs role on rail stations Download file

Report

Rail Cities in the 21st Century - The Case for Devolution

Modern and efficient rail networks are key to ensuring that city regions can grow in a green and smart way. But to realise the potential of urban rail, remote control by Whitehall needs to be replaced with local control by the city regions themselves. Only then can rail play its part in the fully integrated, responsive public transport networks that the city regions need.

Read more about Rail Cities in the 21st Century - The Case for Devolution Download file

Report

What light rail can do for cities

This report sets out the case for investing in light rail. It is based on a detailed review of the available evidence held by the promoters of schemes in the UK looking at the benefits that have been delivered so far and how these have been achieved.

Read more about What light rail can do for cities Download file

Urban Transport Group frustrated by sidelining of city region role in rail reform consultation

Merseyrail train
The Urban Transport Group has expressed its frustration that city regions have been sidelined in the Government’s consultation on legislation to implement rail transformation, which closes for responses today.

Transport has key role in shaping sustainable suburbs in post-COVID era, report finds

Man and boy on cargo bike
Transport has a key role to play in shaping a new and sustainable era for the suburbs, a new report from the Urban Transport Group says.

Queen’s Speech: Transport Bill is opportunity to extend benefits of local control of transport

Parliament
The Urban Transport Group has today responded to the Queen's Speech.

City regions must help shape rail reform to ensure benefits reach more people and places

London Overground station and train
City regions must ‘have a seat at the table’ when decisions are taken about how the Government’s reform of the railways is implemented – a new statement from the Urban Transport Group urges. 

The biggest job in UK urban transport: TfL Commissioner to speak about leading through a global crisis and towards a green and just recovery

Andy Byford
Transport for London Commissioner Andy Byford will be in conversation with Jo Field, Chief Executive of JFG Communications and President of Women in Transport for the seventh in the Urban Transport Next series of events, hosted by Urban Transport Group.

Urban Transport Group welcomes Williams-Shapps rail plan

Merseyrail
The UK’s network of urban transport authorities has welcomed the news that the Williams-Shapps Plan for rail will give ‘local leaders…greater control over local ticketing, timetables and stations.’ 

City regions must be “at the heart” of Government’s Green Industrial Revolution

Metrolink Tram
The Urban Transport Group, the UK’s network of city region transport authorities, has today responded to the Government’s Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution.

City regions say Government’s decision to end franchising brings ‘greater stability’ to rail sector

Train in station image
The Urban Transport Group, the UK’s network of city region transport authorities, has today welcomed the announcement by Government that it will end the current rail franchising model and replace it with new ‘recovery’ contracts.

Empower urban transport authorities to build back better from COVID-19, urges report

Build back better image
Transport authorities can play their part in shaping a positive legacy of COVID-19 for the UK’s city regions, provided they are given both the funding and powers they need to respond to the challenges that lie ahead.

Rail stations investment key to building back better after COVID-19

Railway station
Investing in rail stations can give a much needed boost to local economies and communities in the aftermath of the coronavirus crisis, according to a new report which highlights the benefits of devolved authorities’ involvement in station transformation.

Critical challenges and solutions to improving transport in city regions identified ahead of party conferences

What next for urban transport? cover
The challenges to improving transport in the UK’s city regions and the solutions needed to overcome them have been set out by the Urban Transport Group today.

Changing travel habits in UK’s cities revealed in new data report

Number crunch 2019 cover
Fewer commutes per person, reduced car use in major urban centres and rapidly falling bus patronage – these are just some of the transport trends taking place in the UK’s biggest cities and city regions, as identified in the Urban Transport Group’s latest data report.

National Infrastructure Commission is right to make devolved transport funding for cities a key test for Government’s future infrastructure plan

Bus
The National Infrastructure Commission’s call for Government to make devolved funding for urban transport to cities a key test of the Government’s forthcoming National Infrastructure Strategy is hugely welcome, says the Urban Transport Group.

Climate advisors’ ‘clear route map’ for tackling transport emissions welcomed by city region transport authorities

Electric car
The Urban Transport Group - the UK's network of city region transport authorities - has today welcomed the Committee on Climate Change’s new advice for Government to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2050, and specifically its recommendations for the transport sector.

City region transport authorities call for more local control over rail services

Merseyrail train
The Urban Transport Group - the UK's network of city region transport authorities - has today called for the Williams Rail Review to give far greater emphasis to the proven success of the devolution of control over regional and urban rail services by making it a cornerstone of wider railway reform.

Urban Transport Group strengthened as Northern Ireland’s public transport provider joins up

Jonathan Bray with Translink staff
Membership of the Urban Transport Group has received a significant boost today as Translink, Northern Ireland’s main public transport provider, has joined as an Associate Member.

South Yorkshire transport chief is new Chair of Urban Transport Group

Stephen Edwards
Stephen Edwards, the Executive Director of South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive (SYPTE), is the new Chair of the Urban Transport Group.

Rail Review must deliver further devolution to realise world-class railway

Merseyrail train
The Government’s ‘root and branch’ review into rail must bring about further devolution of rail responsibilities if the UK is to realise its ambition of creating a world-class railway, says the Urban Transport Group.

‘Transit oriented development’ can help meet housing demand and reduce car-based urban sprawl, says report

The place to be visual
Placing transport at the heart of new building developments will help the UK to meet its demand for new homes and prevent car-based urban sprawl, a report from the Urban Transport Group says today.

Leading urban transport data tool relaunches with expansive range of new statistics

Data Hub on laptop
The country’s leading online tool for transport data in cities has been relaunched today to include an even wider range of transport-related statistics, such as congestion, road safety and satisfaction.

Urban Transport Group appoints transport heavyweight to investigate benefits of locally-run rail stations

Stephen Joseph
Transport expert Stephen Joseph is to investigate the benefits that flow from devolved authorities' involvement in railway stations, for a new report for the Urban Transport Group. 

Urban Transport Group welcomes appointment of Andrew Jones as Rail Minister

Andrew Jones
The Urban Transport Group has today welcomed the appointment of Andrew Jones MP as a Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport, with responsibility for rail.

Transport crucial to achieving Government’s ‘Prevention is better than cure’ vision

Cyclist
The Urban Transport Group has today welcomed the Department of Health and Social Care’s ‘Prevention is better than cure’ vision, whilst also highlighting the crucial role that transport will play in achieving it.

Transport key to ‘putting towns back on the map’, says report

About towns report cover
Transport has a key role to play in helping the UK’s post-industrial towns to thrive – putting them firmly back on the map, a report by the Urban Transport Group finds today.

Urban Transport Group welcomes rail review as opportunity to extend rail devo benefits

Merseyrail train
Responding to the review of the future structure of the rail network announced by Chris Grayling today, Ben Still (Managing Director of West Yorkshire Combined Authority), who leads on rail for the Urban Transport Group, said:

New deal on funding and powers essential to keep cities moving forward, stresses Urban Transport Group

Walking blur
Further devolution of rail services, greater funding for buses and reform of taxi and Private Hire Vehicle legislation – these are just three parts of a new deal on funding and powers that is required to keep the UK’s cities moving forward.

Rail Cities UK report maps out better future for urban rail

Rail Cities UK report
Significant rail expansion is the ‘only viable option’ to help UK cities achieve their ambitions on economic growth and meeting housing demand, whilst also creating attractive urban centres with less road traffic and better air quality. 

UTG response to RDG partnership railway launch

Ben Still

Ben Still, Managing Director of the West Yorkshire Combined Authority and board director and lead on rail for the Urban Transport Group, comments on the Rail Delivery Group's ‘In Partnership for Britain’s Prosperity’ announcement.

Urban Transport Group concerned over 'cost dumping' on urban and regional rail networks

Ben Still
Lead Board member on rail issues for the Urban Transport Group, Ben Still, has today written to the Chief Executive of the Office of Rail and Road Regulation (ORR).

Rail fares consultation “ignores case for greater fares simplification and integration in cities”

Railway tracks
The Urban Transport Group has today responded to the launch of a public consultation on rail fares in the UK.

New report provides rationale for deeper investment in regional rail infrastructure and services

Press release
A report from the Urban Transport Group has found that investing in a typical range of different types of regional rail services would represent high value for money and bring significant economic benefits.

Dramatic shifts in transport trends of UK cities, revealed in new report

Number crunch cover
Ageing urban populations, rapid bus passenger decline and huge growth in private hire vehicles are just some of the dramatic shifts taking place in UK cities, a new report from the Urban Transport Group reveals today.

Urban Transport Group responds to new Government rail policy

Ben Still
Ben Still, who leads for the Urban Transport Group on rail, said...

New report proves devolved rail networks work for passengers and the areas they serve

Rail devolution works
A study of devolved rail services in the UK has identified a strong trend of dramatic increases in performance, reliability and satisfaction levels among passengers since responsibilities for local rail services were devolved from Whitehall.

Urban Transport Group responds to Network Rail restructure and MD for the North

London Overground
Tobyn Hughes, who leads on rail for the Urban Transport Group, said...

UK's largest urban transport authorities set out vision for future of transport in the city regions

Policy Futures

Following on from the EU referendum, the formation of a new Government and with the start of the party conference season, the Urban Transport Group has set out a vision for how UK transport policy could unfold in a way that will enable the nation’s largest urban areas to deliver inclusive growth in a smart and sustainable way.

Urban Transport Group responds to Shaw report

Rail tracks and signals c Network Rail

Tobyn Hughes, who leads for the Urban Transport Group on rail, said:

Urban Transport Group welcomes plans for more devolution on rail in London

London Overground train
Tobyn Hughes, who leads for the Urban Transport Group on rail issues, said...

pteg responds to Northern and TPEX franchise awards

Northern Rail train
Tobyn Hughes, who leads on rail for pteg, said...

New ‘Horizon Scan’ report sets out how forward thinking cities can respond to rapid technological and social change

Horizon Scan cityscape
A new report from pteg aims to provide city decision makers with a guide to the implications for urban transport of transformative social and technological change and how they can best respond. 

pteg responds to Shaw scoping report

Train tracks c. Network Rail

Tobyn Hughes who leads for pteg on rail said:

'Destination Growth' - new report calls for investment 'catch up' on regional rail

Train in station
A new report from pteg, published today, Thursday 1st October, 'Destination Growth - the case for Britain’s regional railways', finds that despite seeing by far the lowest levels of investment of any rail sector, the regional rail sector has seen astonishing levels of growth.

pteg calls for rail reviews to map onto a devolving Britain

Rail tracks and signals c Network Rail
In a statement published today pteg has called for the current reviews of the future of Network Rail to ensure that the railways map onto the geographies and governance of an increasingly devolved Britain.

pteg responds to Secretary of State's Network Rail statement

Network Rail working on railway track
In response to the announcement by Network Rail today (25th June) Tobyn Hughes, who leads on rail for pteg said...

Report sets out new vision for urban freight

Person loading parcel onto lorry
A new report from pteg highlights the essential role of urban freight in ensuring the effective functioning of the UK economy and presents a fresh vision designed to safeguard this role, as well as protect the environment and quality of life for communities.

New report makes powerful case for growth agenda for the North's railways

Northern rail train in station

A new report from pteg shows how the North’s booming railways are integral to its economic prospects; and shows why future plans for the North’s railways should be based on expansion and growth.

‘The Economic Value of Rail in the North of England’ finds that:

New report reveals how biased cost allocation system penalises local rail services in the regions

Network Rail repairing bridge
A new report from pteg takes the lid off the complex way in which the costs of running the national rail network to show how time and again the rules are biased against regional rail, loading on costs in a way that feeds false perceptions about the value for money of local rail services in England outside the South East.

Transport leaders welcome HS2 as ‘significant step forward’ in connecting the nation’s major cities

Picture: Priestmangoode
Transport leaders from across the regions have welcomed HS2’s phase 2 public consultation launch as a significant step forward in connecting eight of our ten major cities.

How the Beeching cuts left the city regions down but not out

Beeching
Fifty years to the day since the publication of the Beeching report changed the shape of Britain’s railways forever, new analysis published today by pteg has revealed the extent of its impact on rail networks in England’s largest regional conurbations and how it left them down, but by no means out.

pteg welcomes CBT rail devolution report

Merseyrail train c. Network Rail

Commenting on Campaign for Better Transport's ‘Going Local: Lessons for rail policy from London Overground and Merseyrail’ report, published today (Thursday 7th Feb), pteg Director, Jonathan Bray, said:

pteg welcomes high-speed rail decision

People boarding a train

Following the announcement today of the next phase of high speed rail and the publication of the routes to Leeds and Manchester, Geoff Inskip, the lead on rail issues for pteg said:

pteg welcomes further support on rail devolution

Transpennine train at station

Commenting on the publication by the Department for Transport today of the outcomes of the Brown Review of the Rail Franchising Programme, Geoff Inskip, Chair of pteg said:

pteg welcomes rail devolution progress

Metro 333 train at Menston

Commenting on the publication by the Department for Transport today of the outcomes of the consultation on the scope for further rail devolution, and rail Minister Simon Burns's accompanying statement, Geoff Inskip, Chair of pteg said:

Unlocking the rail devolution opportunity

Northern Rail train and bridge
In its response to the Government’s consultation on the potential for rail decentralisation, pteg has called on the Government to seize the opportunity that rail devolution offers for better rail services in the North and Midlands.

Devolution right way forward for local rail

SYPTE
pteg today welcomed the rail command paper, and associated consultation on the scope for further devolution of powers over local rail services.

Time for local rail services to be run locally

Northern Rail service
At a meeting held in Leeds, leaders of the six largest urban transport authorities outside London called on the Government to transfer key responsibilities over local rail services from Whitehall.

pteg welcomes McNulty report

Metro
The six largest public transport authorities outside London today welcomed the McNulty report, and in particular its focus on the potential for greater devolution of rail powers outside London.

pteg welcomes tram-train pilot go-ahead

Tram-train in Saarbruken
Chair of pteg Geoff Inskip said: 'We welcome Norman Baker's support for the tram-train pilot scheme..."

pteg welcomes DfT's new approach to rail franchising devolution

Merseyrail train

Responding to the DfT's new rail franchising policy, pteg Chair, Geoff Inskip, said:

New Chair of pteg calls for more investment in local rail

Geoff Inskip - Director General of Centro
Geoff Inskip, chief executive of Centro, has been appointed as the new Chair of pteg, taking over the role from Neil Scales.

Time for localism on urban rail

Metro
In response to the DfT’s consultation on the future of rail franchising (which closes today), pteg has set out new proposals for the decentralisation of responsibilities for city region rail networks.

pteg says time to decentralise on local rail

333 train at Menston
In response to the publication by the Department for Transport of ‘Shaping the Future of Rail Franchising’, Neil Scales, Chair of pteg, said...

Cross-party support for more diesel trains for the North & Midlands

Northern Rail train for York
Cross-party leaders of the group of six Integrated Transport Authorities (ITAs) have today written to Secretary of State for Transport, Lord Adonis, to raise their concerns over the lack of new diesel rolling stock.

pteg backs MPs' call for more rail investment in the North

Press release

Responding to the House of Commons Transport Select Committee report on ‘Priorities for Investment in the Railways’, published today (00.01 Monday 15th Feb), Chair of pteg, Neil Scales said:

Merry Christmas from pteg

Press release
This Christmas, rather than sending Christmas cards, pteg is making a donation to Railway Children – the voice for street children worldwide.

Report's call for bigger role for PTEs on stations is welcomed

Press release
pteg today welcomed the ‘Better Rail Stations’ report’s call for a greater role for PTEs on stations.

Concern over train investment cutbacks

Northern Rail service at Leeds
Following on from a Parliamentary debate today, pteg expressed concern that overcrowding at key regional rail hubs could get worse as the Department of Transport is seeking to scale down its planned investment in additional rolling stock for the North’s rail network.

pteg supports Railway Children this Christmas

Press release
This Christmas, instead of sending Christmas cards, pteg is making a donation to support the valuable work of Railway Children.

Transport Secretary leads train naming to honour the late Barbara Castle

Press release
Transport Secretary Ruth Kelly today joined the family of Barbara Castle to help name a Northern Rail train after the late Labour MP and first woman Transport Minister.

Call for bigger say on local rail networks

Press release
Cllr Mark Dowd OBE, the new Chair of the group of six Passenger Transport Authorities has written to the Secretary of State for Transport, Ruth Kelly MP, to welcome the prospect of greater influence over local rail networks.

Rail White Paper response

Press release
Geoff Inskip, Director General of Centro takes the lead for pteg on rail issues, said...

City region transport authorities welcome new trains – but regions should get fair share

Press release
Passenger Transport Authorities for six of Britain’s largest city regions have welcomed plans for 1,000 new carriages – but have called on Government to ensure that Britain’s booming city regions get their fair share of the investment.

pteg pleased with Northern Rail outcome

Press release

Roy Wicks, Director General of South Yorkshire PTE, and lead spokesperson on rail issues for pteg, today said:

Darling's rail expansion speech welcomed

Press release

Responding to Alistair Darling’s speech at a national rail conference on 15th March 2006, pteg Support Unit, Director, Tim Larner, said:

PTEs disappointed by downgrading of franchise powers but heartened by cross party support for strong future role

Press release
pteg said today it was disappointed that the Government has pushed through clauses in the Railways Bill that will remove the PTEs’ automatic right to be co-signatories of rail franchises – despite considerable cross party opposition in both the upper and lower houses.

Passengers lose under Railways Bill

Press release
pteg expressed its concern today over clauses in the Railways Bill (published today) which would remove the PTEs’ powers to plan and manage local rail networks.

Concern over Railways Bill

Press release

Britain’s seven Passenger Transport Executives (which serve more than thirteen million people in some of the country’s largest city regions) have expressed their concern over Government proposals to strip them of their powers over local rail networks.

End of Northern rail franchise uncertainty

Press release
pteg today welcomed the Government's decision to go ahead with the Northern Rail franchise, and looks forward to working with Northern Rail operator - Serco-NedRailways.

pteg responds to Rail Review

Press release
pteg today welcomed Alistair Darling’s announcement that PTEs are to be given more powers over their local rail networks.

pteg welcomes Northern Trains announcement

Press release
pteg today welcomed the announcement that Serco-NedRailways is the preferred bidder for the Northern Trains franchise.

Failure to invest in rail could slow regional regeneration

Press release
Economic development in some of Britain’s largest regional cities could be held back through lack of investment in their commuter rail networks, a new report, launched today shows.

PTEs seek more powers over local rail networks

Press release
pteg is calling for PTEs to be given an enhanced role in the delivery of local rail services in its response to Alistair Darling’s rail review. 

pteg welcomes Government moves to devolve powers over local rail networks

Press release
pteg today welcomed Alistair Darling’s announcement that powers over local rail services could be devolved to the Passenger Transport Executives.

pteg responds to SRA rolling stock strategy

Press release
pteg described the Strategic Rail Authority’s rolling stock strategy released today as, ‘a welcome commitment from the SRA to better manage and coordinate decisions on rolling stock,’ but said, ‘there was still no clear plan for providing the extra trains needed to tackle worsening overcrowding on commuter services in the regions.’

pteg researches ‘the case for rail in the conurbations’

Press release

pteg has commissioned a new report – ‘The Case for Rail in the Conurbations’. Transport consultants JMP have been commissioned to produce the report which will examine the role of rail in the conurbations in the context of the full range of relevant Government policy objectives. These are not just the Government’s objectives for rail but also those for raising the economic performance of the regions, and tackling social exclusion.

pteg concern at high leasing charges

Press release
pteg is calling for train leasing charges that reflect the quality and type of train, and for more transparency and flexibility in train lease contracts to tackle overcrowding on PTE rail networks.

pteg responds to the Rail in the North report

Press release
pteg (which represents Britain’s seven PTEs) today welcomed a House of Commons Transport Select Committee report into ‘Railways in the North of England’.